According to ancient Sumerian literature, the word Gilgamesh describes a medieval Sumerian King. Gilgamesh was the fifth monarch or ruler of Uruk, during the first empire of Uruk. In 2500 BC, the Uruk realm was geographically located where Iraq is located today. Available archeological archives indicate that Gilgamesh ruled Uruk for more than a century and two decades, roughly for 126 years. According to archeological records found in the Tummal Imprinting, Gilgamesh had a son named Urlugal. A notable accomplishment by both Gilgamesh and Urlugal was the reconstruction of the temple of Ninlil, within Tummal, a consecrated area in Ninlil town of Nippur.
Gilgamesh remains the most notable character in the known literature work of medieval Mesopotamian. The literature work identifies Gilgamesh father as Lugalbanda, and the mother as Ninsun, a divinity. Consistent with Mesopotamian folklore, Gilgamesh was half-god. Using his supernatural strength, Gilgamesh constructed the city barricades of Uruk to protect his populace from peripheral dangers. Gilgamesh in addition, journeyed to meet a guru named Utnapishtim, who lived after the Great Flood.

Gilgamesh character and actions are clearly described in the mythology of the Epic of Gilgamesh. The folklore describes Gilgamesh as powerful because of the extraordinary things he did, such as construction of the mythological fortifications of Uruk, after they were destroyed by Sargon of Akkad. Sargon destroyed the fortifications of Uruk as a show of his military power and skills.

According to a section of a classic writing discovered in Me-Turan, which comprises present-day Tell Haddad, King Gilgamesh was laid to rest under a river floor. The folklore articulates that the citizens of Uruk changed the course of river Euphrates flowing through Uruk so as to bury their beloved Gilgamesh within the stratums of the river floor. In 2003, archeologists from Germany reported to have discovered Gilgamesh burial place.

Generally, the folklore of Gilgamesh is considered true because there are other archeological discoveries informing about his existence (Katz, 1993). Archeological evidence in the form of inscriptions has been discovered, confirming the existence of Gilgamesh and association with ancient figures, such as King Aga of Kish and King Enmebaragesi. Archeological evidence estimates Gilgamesh ruled Uruk about the Twenty-sixth century B.C. The folklore of Gilgamesh is also part of the Middle East, Egyptian, and Babylonian mythologies. According to the Sumerian folklore, Gilgamesh became a god later in his life.


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